XII     List of Publications:

Papers Published In Journals:

1.The Cataclastic Host Rocks of Mando-ki-Pal, Dungarpur, Rajasthan. Bull. Ind. Geol. Assoc. Vol.  3, pp 61-66. 1970        

The Cataclastic Host Rocks of Mando-Ki-Pal Fluorspar Deposits, Rajasthan

Pushpendra Singh Ranawat
Post-Graduate Department of Geology, University of Rajasthan, Udaipur


Mylonites have been formed in granitic gneisses and pegmatites of Banded Gneissic Complex along narrow, liner, steeply dipping and widely separated shearzones at Mando-ki-Pal, 140 km, south of Udaipur City. These mylonitic rocks, which resemble chert in hand specimen, range from protomylonite to ultramylonite and bear fluorspar mineralization, in them. Silicification of these rocks, prior to mineralization, has modified their texture and composition.

The petrographic investigations, chemical study and field observation of these rocks fully reveal their cataclastic origin. The author takes an opportunity to describe for the first time the long considered cherts as cataclastic rocks.   

2. Preliminary Investigation of the Fluorspar Deposits of Mando-ki-Pal, Dungarpur, Rajasthan. Jour. Min. Metals & Fuels. Vol. XIX, pp 283-288, 1971
(Co-author: M. K. Pandya)

Preliminary Investigations of the Fluorspar Deposits of Mando-Ki-Pal, Dungarpur, Rajasthan

M. K. Pandya and P. S. Ranawat,
Department of Geology, University of Rajasthan, Udaipur


The fluorspar mineralization of Mando-ki-Pal is confined to a variety of host rocks, viz., silicified mylonites, microbreccias, granitic gneisses, pegmatites and quartzites. The mineralization is controlled essentially by shear zones, along which the host rocks have undergone cataclasis and silicification. The mineralization predominates fissure filling and breccia filling with subordinate replacement and dissemination. Besides fluorite, calcite also occurs in appreciable quantities; at places calcite predominates fluorite, as at Mata, Bhagat, and Hathai-ka-wara hills. Quartz is a common gangue. Rare occurrences of galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and secondary copper carbonates have been observed. Color of fluorite is generally violet but tends to be green or white in thick sections of the vein.

The fluorspar mineralization is an outcome of hydrothermal solutions representing late stage aqueous phase of the magma to which are genetically related the granites, pegmatites and aplites of the area. Metallic sulphides were first to form, followed by fluorite and calcite. Green fluorite predates violet variety. Silica has longest span of deposition. It is represented by massive and less commonly by crystalline variety. Mineralization can be referred to post-Aravalli period.

3.Nature of Fluorspar Mineralization at Chowkri - Chhapoli, Sikar - Jhunjhunu Districts, Rajasthan. Jour. Geol. Soc. India. Vol. 20, pp 25-30, 1979.

Nature of Fluorspar mineralisation at Chowkri-Chhapoli-Sikar, Sikar-Jhunjhunu Districts, Rajasthan

P. S. Ranawat


Colour-zoned, octahedral crystallized fluorspar mineralization is localized in post-Delhi intrusives of tonalite, hornblendite and vein quartz at Chowkri. Fluorite occurs in Ajabgarh feldspathic quartzites at Chhapoli and also in aplites of younger age. The mineralization is attributed to hydrothermal solutions genetically related to the post-Delhi intrusive granite, tonalite and aplites of the area.

4. Geology of Karara Volcanic Vent Rajasthan. Jour. Geol.  Soc. India. Vol. 25, pp 728-734, 1984, (Co-author: R. S. Dashora)

Geology of Karara Volcanic Vent, rajasthan

P.S. Ranawat1 and R.S. Dashora2
1Department of Geology, University if Rajasthan, Udaipur 313001

2Department of Mines & Geology, Government of Rajasthan, Udaipur 313001


Fluorspar veins in Karara area occur in a variety of pyroclastic and flow rocks, represented by volcanic breccias, lapilli tuffs, including ignimbrite. Lavas produced are of the nature of basalt, andesite, trachyte, dacite, and rhyolite along with their borderline varieties.

5.Microthermometry of Fluid Inclusions in Octahedral Fluorite from Chowkri, India. Terra Cognita. Vol. 6, pp. 510-511, 1986, (Co-author: V. B. Naumov)

Refereed Abstract (E. Roedder)

P. S. Ranawat* and V. B. Naumov**
*Department of Geology, University of Rajasthan, 51 Saraswati Marg, Udaipur -313001. India
** V. I. V Institute of Geochemistry and analytical Chemistry. Academy of sciences of the USSR, MOSCOW, USSR.


Aggregates of color-zoned octahedral crystals of fluorite occur in post-Delhi tonalite (~1010 m.y.), quartz reefs (quartz-I), and hornblendite located between the villages of Chowkri and Salwari (N 27°40'00" / E 075°37'00"), India. The order of mineral deposition is: quartz-I, fluorite, calcite, quartz-II. Primary fluid inclusions (Fls) in fluorite contain an aqueous phase + vapour bubble ± halite. In green fluorite, the Fls are of regular shapes, mostly tetrahedral (hemihedral form of octahedron) while, in purple fluorite or purple zones in green fluorite, they are of irregular outline. The Fls are low in abundance but fairly large (up to 100-µ). A characteristic feature of these Fls is hydrohalite instability and precipitation of halite from the frozen matrix. Based on cryoscopic observations and phases present at room temperature, the fluid inclusions can be grouped in to the following three types.

Type of FI

Phases at RT

Te (°C)

TM ice (°C)

TM NaCl (°C)

Th I-V (°C)


Type I


-52 to -46

-28 to -22

-10 to +21

120to 190

Freeze to dark brown phase. In rare cases, NaCl persist up to RT

Type II


-52 to -45

-28 to -22

80 to 170

130to 230

Freeze to dark brown phase, more than two NaCl crystals after melting

Type III


Uncertain but less than that of Types I and II, -45 to -23

-26 to -2


110to 190

Freeze to light less brown or colorless phase with reduction in size of vapour bubble

Quartz -I contains multiphase inclusions while quartz -II contains Fls with a variable degree-of-fill and a variable proportion of an acicular, entrapped phase, which also occurs as solid inclusions in quartz. Calcite contains two-phase inclusions having low salinity.

The fluid inclusion study shows that the bulk of fluorite mineralization was brought about by solutions nearly saturated in NaCl and having a high CaCl2 / NaCl ratio. A drop in salinity of mineralizing fluids is noted from quartz-I (>60%TDS) to calcite (~3 equivalent wt. % NaCl). The range of salinity for fluorite mineralization is 31 to 5 equivalent wt. percent NaCl. Basal sections of larger crystals (up to 10 cm across) show a drop in salinity from core to margin. Significant variation of Th is, however, not observed. Fluorine-bearing solutions, genetically related to granitic activity, leached calcium from the granitic host rock resulting in depletion of its calcium content. The host rock shows a tonalitic composition with Fe2O3>FeO

6.Fluid Inclusion Study of Apatite Associated with Talc in an Ultramafic Belt West of Udaipur, India. Terra Cognita. Vol.  6, 511 p, 1986,
(Co-author: M. S. Shekhawat)

Refereed Abstract (E. Roedder)

P S. Ranawat and M. S. Shekhawat
Department of Geology, University of Rajasthan, 51 Saraswati Marg, Udaipu-313001, India

Two long narrow ultramafic belts spaced nearly 3 km apart occur west of Udaipur, India, in the Aravalli formations; represented by phyllite, quartzite, quartz-sericite schist, garnet -mica schist, and siliceous dolomite. The western ultramafic belt has workable deposits of anthophyllite while the eastern belt has several lensoidal deposits of talc. Two of the talc deposits containing cogenetic apatite were selected for fluid inclusion study to ascertain the P-T- X conditions of steatitization in the area

The talc lenses have a thin enveloping zone of chlorite followed by a zone of phlogopite. An outermost zone of talc-tremolite is present in some of the bodies. A talc lens near the village Khakar, at the southern end of the belt, contains disseminated crystals of green apatite up to 15 cm in length. Apatite crystals also occur in chlorite and phlogopite zones but they are absent outside these zones. Veins of apatite have not been observed. Based on mode of occurrence, distribution of apatite and petrographic features, it is concluded that apatite is cogenetic with talc. These apatite crystals contain H2O-CO2 bearing, small (~20 µ), primary fluid inclusions of perfect hexagonal outline. About 15 km north of this deposit, in a second talc lens near the village of Undithal, yellow crystals of apatite have been observed. They contain fluid inclusions of irregular to semi-regular shapes. Fluid inclusion data on apatite samples from both these lenses are tabulated below:



Average density

Co2 (g/cc)

Average TmCo2 (°C) 


(Eq. wt. % NaCl)

Average Th I-V


Yellow apatite,

Talc zone

H2O + V







Green apatite,

talc zone

H2O+ CO2 (I)

+CO2 (v)          






Green apatite,

chlorite zone

H2O+ CO2 (I)

+CO2 (v)          






Green apatite,

Phlogopite Zone

H2O+ CO2 (I)

+CO2 (v)           






XRD data show that the yellow apatite is flour-apatite whereas the green apatite is hydroxyl-apatite.

Talc in the area formed due to metamorphism of ultramafic rock, and the metamorphic fluids supplied calcium and aluminum as indicated by the presence of tremolite, apatite and chlorite. On the northern side of the belt the fluids were devoid of CO2 and had low salinity, whereas on the southern side the presence of CO2 is confirmed and aqueous phase having low salinity; whereas on the southern side the presence of CO2 (5-15 mole %) is confirmed. CH4 content decreases from the phlogopite zone to the talc zone. The fluid inclusion data and the relevant mineral assemblages, talc-tremolite-antigorite in the eastern belt and anthophyllite-talc-antigorite in the western belt, show that the steatitization of impure ultramafic rock was brought about under varying Xco2 conditions in the temperature range of 400-410 °C and at a pressure of about 2.5 kb.

7. Paragenesis and Fluid Inclusion Study of Fluorspar Associated with Volcanic Rocks of Karara, India. (Co-author: R. S. Dashora) Proc. Symp. 5; Intern. Volcanological Congress, New Zealand. pp 81-86, 1986, Eds. Brathwaite, R. L., Browne, P.R.L., & Robert, J.


P.S. Ranawat1 and R.S.Dashora2

1 Department of Geology, University of Rajasthan, Udaipur, India
2 Department of Mines & geology, Government of Rajasthan, Udaipur, India


Fluorspar mineralization occurs in pyroclastic and to lesser extent in flow rocks of volcanic vent near Karara, Rajasthan, northwestern India. The volcanic rocks of western Rajasthan belong to Malani suite, 505-735 m. y., and represents the largest silicic volcanic activity in India. The pyroclastic rocks near Karara are volcanic breccia, lappili tuff, and welded tuff including ignimbrite. Flows of mafic to silicic rocks are present. Three distinct stages of fluorspar mineralization are present as cavity filling. Two-phase primary fluid inclusions having high degree of fill are present. Th: Stage-I: 110°-240°C, Th: Stage-II: 50°-130°C. Mineralizing fluids had low salinity, 225 ± 1.99 equiv. Wt % NaCl. Phenocrysts in the saturated volcanic rocks contain melt inclusions (glass + vapour bubble, Th: 1050 ± 50° C

8.Metamorphic Character of Rampura-Agucha Lead-Zinc Deposit, Rajasthan. Mem. Geol. Soc. India. Vol. 7, pp 397-409, 1988, (Co-authors: S.N. Bhatnagar, & N.K. Sharma)


P.S. Ranawat 1, S.N. Bhatnagar and N. K Sharma2

1Department of Geology, University of Rajasthan, Udaipur- 313001.
2Hindustan Zinc Limited, Udaipur 313001


Ore mineralization at Rampura-Agucha is represented by sphalerite, pyrrhophyllite, pyrite, and galena with minor amounts of chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, talhore and boulangerite. The ore minerals are hosted essentially in the Precambrian graphite-sillimanite-bearing quartzo-feldsphathic gneiss and schist, and calc-silicate rocks. Petrography of drill-core samples shows that the ore minerals have been metamorphosed together with the host rocks under upper amphibolite facies conditions at pressure and temperature in the order of 6.2 ± 0.4 kb and 680° ± 30° C, respectively. Quartz and tourmaline from pegmatite contain independent CO2 (+CH4) and aqueous fluid inclusions. Intersection of CO2 and H2O isochores shows that the tourmaline and quartz in pegmatite formed at much later stage (300° C and 0.64 kb). Substantial part of footwall side of the orebody was involved in dynamic metamorphism subsequent to regional metamorphism.

9.     Petrology and Geochemistry of the Precambrian Lead-Zinc Deposits of Rampura-Agucha, India. In Metamorphism of Massive Sulfide. Ed. P.G. Spry. VSP, the Netherlands, pp 197-227, 1990, (Co-author: N. K. Sharma)


P.S. Ranawat 1 and N. K Sharma2

1Department of Geology, Sukhadia University, Udaipur- 313001, India
Hindustan Zinc Limited, Udaipur-313001, India


The Precambrian formations of Western India host a unique lead-zinc deposit near Rampura-Agucha. The deposit contains an estimated sixty million tonnes of ore having an average grade of 13.48% Zn and 1.935 Pb. The ore is hosted in highly metamorphosed Precambrian formations having characteristic silicate and sulphide assemblages and textures. On the basis of field evidence, petrography, petrochemistry and nature of mineralization, it is concluded that the Rampura-Agucha lead-zinc deposit represents a synsedimentary-metamorphosed type of deposit. Tectonic activity and major orogenic cycles (Aravalli c. 1800 and Delhi c. 1250) brought about characteristic changes in the synsedimentary orebody into a high-grade metamorphosed (mobilized and remobilized ) massive sulphide deposit. Recrystallization and redistribution of chemical components were promoted by regional metamorphism under high P-T conditions. Dynamic metamorphism followed regional metamorphism, which produced coherent finely granulated ore containing rounded fragments of host rock and those of pyrite (ball texture). The orebody underwent prolonged weathering producing a thick cap of gossan, significantly enriched in zinc.       

10. Mineral Economics and Occupational Health Hazards and of the Asbestos Resources of Rajasthan. Journ. Geol. Soc. India Vol. 47, pp 375-382, 1996, (Co-author: B. K. Mansinghka)


B.K. Mansinghka1 and P.S. Ranawat2

1Pusa Niwas, Bhilwara, Rajasthan,
Department of Geology, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313001


World's largest anthophyllite and tremolite deposits occur as small pods and lenses in the Precambrian ultramafic rocks of South Rajasthan. These deposits are being exploited by small-scale manual, opencast mining methods. The recovered ore is pulverized, without beneficiation, for use in asbestos-cement products that are manufactured in the small-scale industrial units throughout the country. Field survey conducted for mining, milling and processing units did not yield anomalous health hazards results. The industry falls under the "extremely low-risk" category of the "Notion of acceptable risks". The paper attempts to rationally examine the facts and fallacies associated with asbestos mining and focuses attention on its risk-benefit aspect. It is concluded that the curbs imposed on asbestos are not justified.

Asbestos, Mineral Economics, Health Hazards, Rajasthan

11.  Electron-probe Microanalysis Study of the Pipliya Meteorite. Current Science, Vol. 74, pp 1100-1103, 1998,

(Co-authors: O. Rouer & M. S. Shekhawat).


P.S. Ranawat *, O. Rouer ** and M. S. Shekhawat*
* Department of Geology, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313002. India
** CNRS-CRSCM, IA rue de Ferollerie. F-45071. Orleans Cedex 2. France

A meteorite fell in an uncultivated field near Pipliya-Kalan, Rajasthan, at about 8.30 p.m. on 20 June 1996. The meteorite is an aggregate of welded angular fragments of basaltic rock of variable granularity. Its basaltic composition and genomictic welded brecciated structure implies eucritic association. We give here a concise geological information report (GIR) of the meteorite with its electron-probe data.

12.  Industrial Minerals & Environmental Impact – Facts & Fallacies. Proceedings Vol. # 1, Conference on Indian Industrial Minerals.
1998, pp 178-180, FIMI, New Delhi. Reprinted in Mining Engineers' Jour., Vol. 2, No. 11, June 2001, pp 27-29    

13.  Introduction to Industrial Minerals and Decorative Stones of Rajasthan. In-Geology of Rajasthan: Status & Perspective, Ed. P. Kataria, 1999, pp 238-250, Dept. Geol. Udaipur.
(Co-authors: M. K. Pandya, T. K. Pandya)

14.  Native Antimony Float Ore from Precambrian of Rajasthan. Co-Authors O. Rouer, C. Ramboz, and N. Lakshmi.  Jour. Geol Soc. India, v, 65,p353-356, March 2005

15. Can Habur Limestone curdle milk? Current Science, Vol. 89, No.5, pp 729-730, Sept.10.2005.

16. Resistance of Limestone to Size Reduction. G. Prabhulingaiah, S. R. Jakhar, M. S. Shekhawat, P. S. Ranawat, and DMR Sekhar. Jour. Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers, Vol.49, No.2, April-June 2007, pp143-150.  

17. Production of epsom, gypsum, and other industrial products from the mill tailings of Jhamarkotra rock phosphate project, India. P. S. Ranawat, K. Mohan Kumar, and Navin K. Sharma. Current Science Vol.96, No.6, 25 March 2009, p.843-848

18.  A process for making slow release phosphate fertilizer from low-grade rock phosphate and siliceous tailings by fusion with serpentinite Pushpendra Ranawat, Kosanam Mohan Kumar, and Navin K Sharma . Current Science, Vol.96, No.5, 10 March 2009, p.713-717.


Newspaper Articles of Wider Public Interest

………………Rajasthan PATRIKA, April 18, 1996, 11 p

………………………………..…………………Rajasthan PATRIKA, June 06, 1996

3. Letter to Editor, Down to Earth Vol. 9, No. 15, 31.12.2000, 3 p

   Down To Earth December 31, 2000

Right or Wrong?
The author of ' Death inside the factory gates" (Down To Earth, Vol 9, No 9; September 30) has not done justice to the article. Ecoweapons have been successfully used the world over. The ban on asbestos products in USA is a result of successful use of "ecoweapons" adopted by the synthetic fibre lobby of USA. The asbestos products manufactured in USA were mostly being imported from Canada. In 1991, the federal appeals courts of USA reversed the ban imposed by the Environment Protection Agency. The court, after a prolonged legal battle, found that evidences against asbestos products were unsubstantiated or misinterpreted.

It felt that the replacement of asbestos does not reduce the projected dangers, rather increases indirect risks. For example it stated, " Credible evidence suggests that non-asbestos brakes could increase significantly the number of highway fatalities." Based on the notion of acceptable risk, statistical evaluation of the lifetime risk value indicates that asbestos falls under ' extremely low risk category.' The lifetime risk value is just 10 per million for asbestos. For tobacco, the figure is 219,000 per million, automobile accident is 16,000 per million, alcohol drinking, air travel and for skiing it is 7,300 and 2,000 per million respectively. Therefore, I hope that your magazine resists temptations to utilize 'ecoweapons.' Readers expect unprejudiced assessment to a problem. The author should have discussed the myths as well as realities, rather than highlighting the myths and ignoring the realities.

Udaipur, Rajasthan.

4. Letter to Editor, India Today, April 02,2001, 8 p

5. RajGeoEducation: 1950-2000, Compendium of Department of Geology, Udaipur. 165 p, 2000, including the following article:

6. “Udaipur’s Water Management Since its Founding: An Assessment and Strategy for Future” pp 85-90

Books Edited:

1. Editor: SILVER JUBILEE VOLUME, Department of Geology, University of Rajasthan Press, 200 p, 1976. Library of Congress Catalog No. I-E-38842,
also distributed by the office of the Library of Congress to 18 University Libraries in the USAThe following papers, by P. S. Ranawat, appeared in the volume: 21. Sites of Geological Interest around Udaipur: Diagrammatic, 28 p, Co-author: K. C. Gyani 22. Environmental Geology, pp 41-49, Co-author: B. K. Mansinghka23. Fluorite: The Mineral That Flows & Glows, pp 66-71, Co-author: A. K. Lahiry24. Chance Discoveries of Mineral deposits, pp 119-12225. INDUSTRIAL MINERALS and ROCKS of RAJASTHAN. AADGURU Publ., Udaipur. 141 p, 1988, Eds. P. S. Ranawat, V. K. Agrawal, P. C. Avadich.

2. Environmental Perspectives of Mineral Resource Utilization, MIN-ENV-95, Publ. Udaipur, 1995, 144 p.  Proceedings of the Seminar on
Environmental Impact Assessment of   Small-Scale Mineral Resource Utilization Eds, P. S. Ranawat, P. C. Avadich, V .K. Agrawal. Preface The following articles written by P. S. Ranawat appear in the book.27. UDAIPUR: An Overview of its History & Environment, pp 1-828.  ECOBULARY, pp 134-13629.  Priority of Mineral Resources Utilization, A letter to PM, pp iii-iv Text see below

Env. Persp. Min.Resour. Utilize; (MIN-ENV-95, Udaipur)

Mining is the oldest industrial activity of human beings. It started with the first stone that man hurried to get his food. Today, agriculture and mining are the two basic human activities necessary for human survival and progress. For the state of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, Karnataka, Assam and couple of other states of the Union, both of these activities play important role in their socioeconomic development. Most of the mineral resources of India fall under the small-scale category so do the industries based on them. Environmental impacts due to utilization of this category of resources need to be appraised and a proper strategy has to be evolved for sustainable development. 

As part of on-going awareness activity, the Department organized the national seminar on "ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSEMENT OF SMALL-SCALE MINERAL RESOURCE UTILIZATION" on the 6th & 7th October 1995. This activity is a continuation of Department's efforts initiated in the year 1974 at the time of our Silver Jubilee Celebrations. Several articles of geological interest published in the SOUVNIR continue to be read and referred to. Article No. 7 (pp 41-49) in the "Souvenir" was one of the first publications in Rajasthan on then new and emerging field of "Environmental Geology". In retrospect we can justifiably be proud of initiating interest in the subject back in 1974.
In the 45th year of Department's service to the society we have decided to focus our attention on the topic of contemporary importance, because now the awareness regarding the environment has increased considerably. After twenty years of our close monitoring of the activities in this field we can now take stock of the situation and see if we are on the right track or have we gone overboard? Does the smoke form brick kiln make a hole in the ozone layer? Does the "effluents" from a tiny sector unit like a flavored supari (betel nut) unit results in pollution/degradation of ground water resources? Do the small mines or quarries result in "depletion of top soil" and does quarrying on hill slopes affect the water table and result in " imbalance of ecosystem"? Several such cases have come to our notice. We now wish to set the trend of "Rational Approach" to environment and discuss the facts and fallacies associated with ecoproblems of utilization of non-generable resources like those of the minerals. The onus rests with the academicians to dispel the unjustified fear that mining activity, which covers less than 1% of the land area, can create havoc with the environment. There is also a growing realization that the developed countries, the true despoilers of environment, are making the developing countries pay for their ecosins. 
Humanity cannot progress and survive without the use of minerals, which are uniquely characterized by being non-generable (see page iii, iv). We have no option but to utilize these resources, but it should be done with concern for environment. This led to our adoption of the theme of this seminar:


This awareness will not only help in keeping our planet in more healthy state, but will also result in increase of mineral assets. Lately, the mine owners and the industrial unit owners have responded positively to the ecological management. The union and state governments on their part have responded by doing away with irrational regulations.
Several new ecofriendly ideas have developed for mining-viz. Landscaping of abandoned open pits, economic use of over burden and discarded low-grade ores, scandinavians have overcome their climatic handicap by successfully cultivating roses and vegetables in the warm abandoned stopes.

We had planned a "concise volume" for this occasion and, therefore, in our First Circular we had invited concise papers. This was essentially because so much has been written on environmental issues that one fear that it might have been written by someone somewhere. ("Baki kahi sab zoothi"!! or duplication). Our main aim was to disseminate information and increase the awareness of environmental aspects of utilization of mineral resources and to dispel some of the myths associated with mining vis-ŕ-vis environment. The other consideration was lack of time available to public and decreasing trend of reading habit of younger generation following the electronic boom. Concise text, therefore, serves the purpose better. This fulfills the readability objective of "WRITE TO BE READ". Some of the longer papers had to be edited to achieve this goal. It is hoped that the following pages will help accomplish the objectives cited above. We are grateful to the Department of Science & Technology, Government of India, Department of Science & Technology, Government of Rajasthan, Indian Bureau of Mines, and the advertiser in this volume, for their financial support. Encouragement and unreserved support of Pro. R.K. Rai, Vice Chancellor,    M. L. Sukhadia University, and that of the faculty members of the Geology Department is gratefully acknowledged.

P.S.RANAWAT                                P.C. AVADICH                                           VINOD AGARWAL
UDAIPUR, October 06, 1995

(Copy of the letter dt.Oct.06, 1993 to the P.M. on personal letterhead).

Prime Minister of India
PMO, South Block.
Hon'ble Sir,

This is in reference to policy confusion going on in the country during past couple of years regarding the impact on environment owing to exploitation of our mineral resources. In this connection it is pertinent to note the following:

1.A confirmed environmentalist like the Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland opined " We cannot allow uninformed sentiments to decide on the controlled use of our natural resources." If this policy decision can be made for the renewable assets like the whales then it is all the more relevant for the "Uncontrolled restriction" of the non- renewable wasting assets like the mineral resources.

2.Many of the mining leases have been cancelled/not renewed/not granted because a mineral prospect is located in a forest/protected area. In this regards it should be realized that the boundaries of the forest/protected areas can be relocated but not that of a mineral deposit. Right of a natural boundary should therefore be given preference over the man-made boundaries. Moreover, a mineral deposit forms in millions of years and under conditions that are beyond the capacity of human beings in a short time (Kyoto prefecture, for example). It is, therefore, not justified to keep a mineral deposit unutilized.    3.Mining lease areas become " protected areas " where owing to awareness in environment, density of the trees is greater than in the region outside the lease area. Awareness amongst the leases regarding afforestation could further be increased.4. We have unfortunately and as always, blindly followed the concept of ecological imbalance owing to mining activity from other (developed) nations where it is partly relevant (but not always adhered to for economic reasons). The surface areas of activity in such cases are in tens of square km. In the case of placer-dredging a couple of hundred of square km of topsoil was turned topsy - turvy to recover granular gold. In our country the major mining projects, which may adversely effect the ecosystem, are cleared in national interest, whereas the small-scale projects which do not really harm the environment are made the scapegoats, this at best is a cosmatic display of ecofriendly effort. It should also be realized that most of the mineral deposits are located in remote areas, which are inhabited by the tribals who not only gain employment due to the mining activity but also get chance to get out of their isolation. 5.It has been observed that in several cases unauthorized work is going on because of these restrictions. This not only defeats the very purpose for which the bans were imposed but also results in loss of revenue to the state.I therefore feel that our policy in the matter should not be based on myths and "uninformed sentiments.''

Thanking you and with best regards.

Yours faithfully
(P. S. Ranawat)

3. RajGeoEducation: 1950-2000, Compendium of Department of Geology, Udaipur. 165 p, also containing the following two articles.

“Udaipur’s Water Management Since its Founding: An Assessment and Strategy for Future” pp 85-90

“Significance of Founding of Udaipur: An Overview of Sixteen-Century World” pp 64-67,also available at website # 37.

Research Reports:

1. Mineragraphic and petrographic study of the Lead-Zinc deposit of Rampura – Agucha, Bhilwara District, Rajasthan. R & D Report submitted to
M/s Hindustan Zinc Ltd. 1982. 102 p, Co-Investigators: M. K. Pandya, B. L. Sharma, and K. C. Gyani            

2. Project Compendium on “Environment of Anthophyllite & Talc Formation in the Ultramafic Rocks of Jharol Area, Rajasthan, 37 p; 1995

Internet-WEB Page

1. http://www.mlsu.ac.in/udaipur/history.html      December 1998-November 2000

2. http://www.mlsu.ac.in/confrences/igc2k.html     December 1998-November 2000

3. http://www.geolmlsu.org                            Since November 2000

4. http://www.psranawat.org                          Since July 2003

5. http://yog.mlsu.org                                     Since July 2005

XIII. Papers Presented at Seminar etc.

1.Fluorescence of fluorite and associated minerals from fluorite deposits of Rajasthan. Proc. 39th Indian Science Congress. Part–III 186, 1972 (Abs.)


P.S. Ranawat, Udaipur

Fluorite and associated minerals were collected from Mando-ki-Pal (Dungarpur Distt.), Chowkri-Chhapoli (Sikar-Jhunjhunu Distt.), Asind (Bhilwara Distt.) and Jhalara (Udaipur Distt.) and studied for their fluorescence with the help of Blackwood type ultraviolet ray lamp emitting light with wavelength in 3650° A region. It was found that all the fluorites of Jhalara and Asind were non-fluorescent, while those of Mando-ki-Pal and Chowkri-Chhapoli area showed interesting results. From these two areas, green and yellow fluorite was in all cases found to fluoresce strongly, while the violet, brown and grey colored varieties were always non-fluorescent. Fluorite of mauve, purple, blue or white color was weak to fairly fluorescent. Relation of color of fluorite and its fluorescence is discussed. Minerals associated with fluorite were also studied. They include calcite, apatite, quartz, siderite, epidote, galena, sphalerite, ilmenite, copper, sulphides, pyrite, copper-carbonates and cerussite. Of these minerals only a few calcites of Mando-ki-Pal showed red, and in one case pinkish white, fluorescence. Cerussite associated minerals were found to be inactive. Activators responsible for fluorescence in these minerals are discussed.Varied intensities and different colors of fluorescence have brought out several textural features, which are otherwise not evident in hand specimen. Utility of fluorescence in study and interpretation of textures is emphasized.

Phosphorescence was, however, not seen in any of these minerals.

2. On the nature of fluorite–apatite mineralization at Salwari, Sikar District, Rajasthan. Proc. 39th Indian Science Congress. Part–III 209, 1972 (Co–author: M. K. Pandya). (Abs.)


P. S. Ranawat and M. K. Pandya, Udaipur

Fluorite mineralization has been encountered in Post-Delhi tonalites exposed near Salwari, 15 kms. ENE of Khandela (27° 36': 75° 33') in Sikar district of northern Rajasthan. The rock has intruded Ajabgarh garnetiferous biotite schist and its feldspars have been highly kaolinized due to the action of mineralizing solutions.  Fluorite is either massive or occurs as octahedral crystals in fissures and weak planes. Replacement of calcite and/or the host rock is also observed. Zoning of green, purple and blue fluorite is generally noted which indicates its rhythmic precipitation from the mineralizing solutions. In a single crystal, measuring 5'' of c-axis, thirty-six bands of fluorite have been counted. Apatite mineralization is seen in the area completely surrounding the fluorite occurrence, i.e.. while fluorite  is concentrated at the center of intrusive body, apatite occurs all around it in tonalite, biotite schist, hornblendite, vein quartz and hybrid rocks. Thus a lateral zoning of apatite around the fluorite deposit has been recognized.Besides fluorite and apatite other minerals formed in the area include calcite, quartz, ilmenite, magnetite and some sulphides of copper and iron.The fluorite-apatite mineralization is attributed to the hydrothermal solutions genetically related to the Post-Delhi acid igneous rocks of the area.

The following two papers were presented at the II Session of the Indian Geological Congress, 1978 (Udaipur)

3.Characteristics of fluid inclusion in fluorite and associated minerals from Samotha and Nawagaon blocks of Mando-ki-Pal fluorspar deposits Rajasthan. (Co-author: N. K. Kavadia). Abs. 37 p

4.Temperature of formation of apatite in talc at Undithal, District Udaipur, Rajasthan  (Co-author: N. K. Vaishnav). Abs.  38 pThe following two papers were read at the “Workshop on Fluid Inclusion Studies in Minerals” held at IIT, Bombay, 22nd & 23rd March 1982.

5.Environmental of fluorspar mineralization in Rajasthan as indicated by fluid inclusion study.

P. S. Ranawat
Department of Geology, University of Rajasthan, Udaipur

Fluorspar mineralisation in Rajasthan occurs at five localities, viz. Mando-ki-Pal (Dungarpur Distt., South Rajasthan), Jhalara (Udaipur Distt., South Rajasthan), Asind (Bhilwara Distt., Central Rajasthan) Chowkri-Chapoli (Sikar-Jhunjhunu Distts., North Rajasthan), and Karara (Jhalore Distt., South West Rajasthan). Of these, the first four are located along a nearly NNE-SSW axis running across the state. Based on fluid inclusion studies, it is concluded that these deposits formed independently under varied physico-chemical environment of mineralisation, and that they are not located along a major lineament having common source, as one would be inclined to believe because of their single linear trend (cf. Van Alstine, 1976)
At Mando-ki-Pal two phases fluid inclusions with high degree of fill are found in fluorites and associated minerals occurring in cataclastic and granitic gneiss host rocks. The stratabound fluorspar veins in quartzite (Nawagaon) have inclusions of liquid CO2 occasionally with halite daughter mineral liquid CO2 has not been found in fluid inclusions in fluorite from Jhalara area. They are biphase inclusions with small vapour bubble. At Asind, the fluorite contains multiphase fluid inclusions with more than one daughter minerals. Dissolved CO2 in aqueous phase is suspected at Jhalara. At Chowkri-Chhapoli, negative faceted cavities contain fluid inclusions of lower degree of fill and halite daughter mineral. The associated first generation quartz has inclusions with halite daughter minerals while the inclusions in younger quartz contain fibrous anisotropic daughter mineral.

Thus, a varied chemistry of mineralizing solutions depositing fluorspar in these areas is indicative of different sources and or different phases of fluorite mineralization.

6.Fluid inclusion study of the Karara fluorspar deposits, Rajasthan (Co-author: R. S. Dashora)
Paper presented at the National Seminar on Scientific and Industrial Application of Fluid inclusions in Minerals, Dehradun, 21st & 22nd October 1984.Abstract National Seminar on Scientific and Industrial Applications of Fluid Inclusions in Minerals: Dehradun Oct., 1984.

7.Thermobaric environment of talc-apatite formation at Undithal, Rajasthan. Abs. 13 p


P. S. Ranawat

Department of Geology, University of Rajasthan, Udaipur

The paper deals with fluid inclusion study of apatite, cogenetic with talc at undithal, Udaipur district. The data indicate that steatitization of ultramafic rocks was brought about by solutions of low salinity (3.80±1.64% NaCl), also low Xco2, having temperature in the region of 300°C -400 °C and pressure between 2-3 kb. PTX conditions have been deduced from the fluid inclusion study and mineral assemblage.

8.Freezing study of fluid inclusion in fluorite–Barite–quartz from Karara fluorspar deposits, Rajasthan, (Co-author: R. S. Dashora). Abs. 15 p


P.S. Ranawat* and R. S. Dashora

*Department of Geology, University if Rajasthan, Udaipur
** Department of Mines & Geology, Government of Rajasthan, Udaipur

Two phases of fluid inclusions having a high degree of fill are present in fluorite, barite, and quartz of Karara area. In fluorite-I (Cubo-octahedral crystals or green coarse granular) bubble is present in fluid inclusions upon freezing, whereas in fluorite-II (columnar or cubic crystals on fluorite-I) the bubble is generally eliminated. Barite contains two-phase fluid inclusions with a very small vapour bubble or monophase inclusions, in letter vapour bubble nucleates on cooling the plate (not resulting in freezing) indicating that monophase fluid inclusions contain stretched liquid. Fluid inclusions in quartz-I, corresponding to fluorite-I stage of mineralization, also freeze with bubble retained.Fluid inclusions in which the vapour bubble is eliminated on freezing may show any of the following features
(a) Vapour bubble reappears between -7°C and -3°C; (b) Vapour bubble does not reappear by 0°C and ice is present metastably up to +3°C; (c) Strain effect and development of cracks along cavity corners, in rare cases the ice breaks open the cavity. Freezing data for fluid inclusions showing features (b) and (c) have not been included in the freezing data for salinity determination.

Freezing temperature for all the minerals show that mineralizing solutions in both the stages of mineralization were of low salinity, 2.25 ±1.995 NaCl.

9. Fluid inclusion study of fuschite quartzite of Jagat Area, Udaipur District, Rajasthan       (Co–author P. C. Avadich). Abs. 21 p


P. C. Avadich and P.S. Ranawat

Department of Geology, University of Rajasthan, Udaipur

The paper describes the fluid inclusion study of fuchsite-quartzite occurring in Banded gnessic complex of Jagat area. Minerals other than fuchsite present in quartzite are ilmenite, leucoxene and rutile.

Primary fluid inclusions are present in quartz grains of the quartzite, which show aqueous phase and a vapour bubble. Trails of secondary fluid inclusions (biphase) are present. Primary and secondary fluid inclusions are small in size (2-18μ m). Upon heating the primary fluid inclusions homogenize in liquid phase, TH L-V =244 °C - 277 °C. Low density Co2 has been observed in some of the primary fluid inclusions (dco2 = 0.164 to 0.221).  Te range of -33 °C through -35 c indicates presence of MgCl2 in the aqueous phase, Tm of which gives salinity range of 8.94 to 18.79 eq. wt. % NaCl.

10.Heating & freezing studies of fluid inclusions in calcite of Saira area, Udaipur District, Rajasthan (Co-author: M. S. Shekhawat). Abs. 23 p


M. S. Shekhawat & P.S. Ranawat

Department of geology, University of Rajasthan

Pockets, lenses and veins of calcite occur in calc-silicate rocks of Delhi Supergroup of rocks (Proterozoic) near Saira, Udaipur district. Two phase primary fluid inclusions of rhombic shape are observed in calcite samples of one of the pits. Fluid inclusions homogenize in liquid phase by 110 °C. Freezing temperature (-3 °C to -1 °C) show that the solutions depositing calcite were of very low salinity. Characteristic feature of freezing is that vapour bubble reduces in size during melting of ice (-31 °C onwards), in some cases the vapour bubble is completely eliminated during thawing which reappears suddenly between -2.7 °C and +2.2 °C

11.Presented a paper (oral presentation) at International Volcanological Congress, 1986, New Zealand (Auckland, Hamilton, Rotorua, Sydney-Australia): “Paragenesis and Fluid Inclusion Study of Fluorspar Associated with Volcanic Rocks of Karara, Rajasthan, India”. Proceedings Vol. p 81-86. Period of visit 1st February 1986 to 15th February 1986.


P. S. Ranawat1 and R. S. Dashora2

1 Department of Geology, University of Rajasthan, Udaipur, India
2 Department of Mines & geology, Government of Rajasthan, Udaipur, India


Fluorspar mineralization occurs in pyroclastic and to lesser extent in flow rocks of volcanic vent near Karara, Rajasthan, northwestern India. The volcanic rocks of western Rajasthan belong to Malani suite, 505-735 m.y., and represents the largest silicic volcanic activity in India. The pyroclastic rocks near Karara are volcanic breccia, lappili tuff, and welded tuff including ignimbrite. Flows of mafic to silicic rocks are present. Three distinct stages of fluorspar mineralization are present as cavity filling. Two-phase primary fluid inclusions having high degree of fill are present. Th: Stage-I: 110°-240°C, Th: Stage-II: 50°-130°C. Mineralizing fluids had low salinity, 225 ± 1.99 equiv. Wt % NaCl. Phenocrysts in the saturated volcanic rocks contain melt inclusions (glass vapour bubble0, Th: 1050 ± 50° C

  • Following two papers were presented at the Seminar on Evolution of the Precambrian Crust in the Aravalli Mt. Belt, 1986 (Udaipur):
12.Metamorphic consideration of Rampura–Agucha lead–zinc deposit (Co–authors: S. N. Bhatnagar and N. K. Sharma). Abs. pp 50-51.

13.Fluid inclusion study of fluorite from Asind, Bhilwara Abs. pp 58 – 59.


P. S. Ranawat

University of Rajasthan

Narrow veins of fluorspar occur as fissure or joint filling in Precambrian migmatites near Asind (Bhilwara District). The area is essentially a migmatite terrain with intrusives of amphibolite, pegmatite and aplite. Veins and bands of epidosite and unakite are commonly observed. Fluorite is violet, purple or colourless granular and is rarely associated with quartz. Epidotization of vein walls is characteristic feature observed in the area. Fluorite contains multiphase primary and pseudosecondary fluid inclusions having an aqueous phase + vapour bubble + NaCl ± granular and/ or acicular birefringent phase ±± black opaque phase. The aqueous phase has RI nearly equal to that of fluorite, but the outline of the inclusion cavity (mostly irregular) become clear during heating and freezing runs. Type-II inclusions have a distinct relief and have only halite daughter mineral. Type-III inclusions also have distinct relief but are biphase. Quartz also contains multiphase or three-phase inclusions. The fluid inclusions freeze with difficulty to dark brown phase, freezing commences and ends in dendritic fashion. Cryometric data is Te: -57 ± 2° C, Tm hydrohalite: -50±5° C, Tm ice: -24 ±2.5° C. During the heating runs liquid-vapour homogenization usually takes place before dissolution of daughter minerals. Th L-V: 132°- 187° C, Th NaCl: 120° - 164° C, Th birefringent phase: 205°-262° C, the inclusions decrepetation leave brown residue on the surface of the plate.

The fluid inclusion and field studies show that the fluorspar mineralization in the area was brought about by concentrated solutions having high CaCl2 / NaCl ratio (presence of Fe salts is also indicated) having minimum temperature of about 400° C and minimum pressure of about 1.5 kb. The fluorspar mineralization is possibly an outcome of late stage activity related to migmatization of the rocks of the area.

14. 29th International Geological Congress, 1992, Kyoto, Japan. Paper presented (oral presentation): Petrochemistry of the Scheelite Bearing Skarns and Granites of Kararavav, India, (Abs. Vol. # 3, 732 p). Period of visit 24th August 1992 to 03rd September 1992. Also chaired the oral session of the symposium II-16-2 of the IGC, “Ore forming Processes in the Island Arcs and Active Continental Margins”.


P.S.RANAWAT (Deptt. of Geol, M.L.S. Univ., Udaipur, India); B.S. RATHORE (Deptt. of Mines & Geol. Raj. India).

Sporadic scheelite mineralization occurs in the skarns belonging to Proterozoic Delhi Supergroup of rocks (1450 Ma) of Kararvav, Rajasthan (Western India). The important lithounits in the area are: granites, calcsilicate, amphibolite, and impure limestone. Small skarn bodies have formed at the junction of impure limestone and late orogenic granite and the former displays metasomatic zoning in terms of concentration of grossularite, epidote, diopside, vesuvianite and clinozoisite. Various types of endoskarns and exoskarns have been distinguished in the area. Scheelite bearing skarn zones show smooth increment of garnet towards the intrusive and clinopyroxene towards limestone. The composition of calico-silicate minerals of scheelite bearing skarn show higher Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio. The amount of scheelite in skarns of the area increases to a maximum at the contact of epidote-plagioclase endoskarn and garnet-epidote endoskarn.Quartz, calcite, vesuvanite, clinozoisite, epidote, grossularite and scheelite contain aqueous biphase primary fluid inclusions (WS = 2.7 to 17.0 eq. wt. % NaCl) and rarely H2O + CO2 type and multiphase fluid inclusions. Microthemometric data indicates low XCO2 content for the boiling fluids, which have Th of 300° to 400° C. Geochemical and fluid inclusion data for the calico-silicate minerals and different lithounits is presented to understand the geological environment of scheelite and skarn formation in the area.


  • The following two papers were presented at the 28th International Geological Congress held in Washington D. C. during July 9-19, 1989.
15. Petrology of the Precambrian lead–zinc deposits, Rampura-Agucha, India (Co-author: N. K. Sharma). 28th IGC Abstracts Vol.#2, p.666


RANAWAT, P.S., Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India, and N.K. SHARMA, Hindustan

Zinc limited

The Precambrian formations of central Rajasthan host a unique lead-zinc deposit near Rampura- Agucha. The deposit owes its economic significance due to presence of about 60 million tonnes of ore having an average grade of 13.48% Zn and 1.93% Pb. This deposit has aggrandized the Indian resources by 16.66%. Its geological importance rests with the fact that the ore is hosted in highly metamorphosed Precambrian formations having significant silicate, sulfide, oxide assemblages and textures.The principal rocks of the area are paragneiss (Agucha gneiss), calcsilicate, impure marble, amphibolite, mylonite and pegmatite. The general strike direction of metasedimentary lithounits and mineralization is NNE-SSW to NE-SW and the dips are moderately steep ranging from 60° to 75° towards SE. The wedge shaped ore body extends for a strike length of 1.6 kilometer. The average width is 60m and it persists up to 380m below the surface. The surface manifestation of ore body is demarcated by multicolored, patchy gossanized exposures.Spatially, the dominant lithounit is the Agucha gneisss having varying proportions of quartz, feldspars, sillimanite, micas (muscovite and biotite) and garnet with localized concentration of graphite and sulfides. Sporadic occurrences of kyanite, staurolite is also observed. Accessory minerals like tourmaline, apatite and iron oxides have been noted. Calc-silicate is compact, fine to medium grained granoblastic rock, which is highly jointed and occurs in irregular bands within Agucha gneiss. Amphibolite occurs in close association with impure marble and calc-silicate in the form of thin ribbons having confirmable relationship with the surrounding rocks.The mineralization is characterized by the diagnostic sulfide assemblage - Sphalerite (ferroan) + phyrrhotite + pyrite + galena + graphite + marcasite with sporadic occurrence of chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite. X-ray study has confirmed the existence of tennantanite, boulangrite, bournonite and marcasite. Major trace element analyses of country, wall and host rocks have been compared to those of various metamorphosed sulfide deposits on different variation diagrams to ascertain the geochemical trends and nature of progenitors. Based on field relations, petrography and petrochemistry, it is inferred that the Agucha gneiss is the product of the regional metamorphism of marine sediments of pelitic to greywacke composition.Petrographic study, under transmitted and incident light, has proven that the silicates and sulfides have been metamorphosed, recrystallized and deformed congruously. Intergranular and intragranular relations amply demonstrate the mineralization is premetamorphosis. Textural evidences of metamorphic recrystalization and deformation have been recorded and described. Polygonization, presence of adsorbed grains of sulfides in silicates, recrystallization of galena in calcsilicates, presence of oriented and flexured crystals of arsenopyrite, sulfide-silicates boundary relationships specially the sulfide-silicate intergrowths, etc., conclusively prove that the sulfides have been involved in high grade regional metamorphism. Intensive mylonitisation of sphalerite bearing gneiss along the footwall of ore body is observed. The textural evidences are consistent with and reinforce interpretation of ore as stratiform metamorphosed type of mineralization.Well-established mineral stability fields have been utilized to ascertain the P-T conditions of metamorphism of ore bearing rocks. The assemblage: sillimanite + K-feldspar + muscovite + biotite + garnet has been considered for the Agucha gneiss. In calc-silicate, the assemblage: diopside + epidote + forsterite + calcite + tremolite + grossularite is of relevance, whereas for the amphibolite it is: hornblende + augite + garnet. It has been observed that the ore bearing sediments were metamorphosed under P-T conditions of upper amphibolite facies (6.2 ± 0.4 kb, 680°±30° C). Common occurrence of migmatites and hydrous minerals and poor development of hypersthene in the rocks of the area indicates that during metamorphism PH2O was equal to the Ptotal.Fluid inclusion data of quartz and tourmaline from the pegmatite shows that the pegmatite was emplaced at much later stage in the area. These minerals contain CO2 , CO2+ H20 and aqueous inclusions, which indicate low P-T conditions of their formation (640 bars, 300° C).

On the basis of field evidences, petrography, petrochemistry and nature of mineralization, it is concluded that the Rampura-Agucha Lead-zinc deposit represents a synsedimentary-metamorphosed type of deposit. Tectonic activities and major orogenic cycles (Aravalli ca1800 and Delhi ca 1950) brought about characteristic changes in the synsedimentary ore body into high grade metamorphosed (mobilized and remobilized) massive sulfide deposit. Recrystallization and redistribution of chemical components were promoted by regional metamorphism under high P-T conditions. Dynamic metamorphism followed regional which produced coherent finely granulated ore containing rounded porphyrocasts of host rock and those of pyrite (ball texture). The ore body underwent prolonged weathering producing a thick cap of gossan, significantly containing fairly high zinc value.

16. Appraisal of anthophyllite deposits in the early Proterozoic Ultramafic, Jharol, India.

17.30th International Geological Congress, 1996, Beijing, China.30th IGC Abstracts Vol.#1, p.405


RANAWAT, P.S. (Dept Geol, MLS Univ., Udaipur, India)

Precambrian as well as the younger rock formations in Rajasthan host a variety of geologically and economically important industrial minerals and rocks (nonmetallic or NM resources), which hold premier position in India’s economy. NM resources of the province can be classified into six genetic models, which are tabulated below. Sedimentary (Sed), metamorphic (Met), igneous (Ign), hydrothermal (Hyth), metasomatic (Mts), residual concentration (Rcn) and evaporation (Evp) processes played dominant role in this complex nonmetallic province. Except for the deposits formed by Sed and Rcn processes, most of other deposits display polygenetic imprints. The paper discusses genetic models and tectonic significance in formation of these resources. Minor quantities of barite, calcite, clays, dolomite, emerald, epidote, fluorspar, garnet (gem), graphite, jasper, kyanite, lignite, mica, oil & natural gas, ocher, potash, quartz, silica sand, vermiculite are also mined in the province.
NM Resources: Genetic model; Formation; % of India’s production
Amphibole asbestos: Met; Proterozoic; 90 %
Clays: Rcn; Sed; Archean to Tertiary host rocks; 71%
Feldspars: Ig; Precambrian; 70%
Granite: Ig; Met; Precambrian & younger; Significant
Gypsum, salts: Evp; Tertiary; 93%
Limestone: Sed; Archean to Eocene; Significant, steel, cement,
chemical & decorative grades.
Marble: Met; Proterozoic; 90%
Rock Phosphate: Sed; Stromatolitic; Proterozoic; 75%
Sandstone, Slate: Sed; Archean to Tertiary; Significant, > 70 %
Serpentinite: Mts; Proterozoic; 100%
Talc & Pyrophyllite: Met; Proterozoic; 87%
Wollastonite: Mts; Proterozoic; 100%

The following paper was presented at the Seminar on Geology of Rajasthan – Status and Perspective, Department of Geology, Udaipur, June 30, 1998,

18.  Introduction to Industrial Minerals and Decorative Stone of Rajasthan”, Proceedings Volume, pp 238-250.


M. K. Pandya, P. S. Ranawat, and T.K. Pandya
Department of Geology, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313002


The state of Rajasthan is blessed with a rich variety of metallic as well as industrial (non-metallic) minerals (including rocks). Many of these are geologically unique deposits formed by varied genetic processes. Most of its Precambrian deposits have explicit metamorphic imprints on them.  Sedimentation and secondary processes are dominant in younger deposits. These mineral resources play an important role in economic sustenance of the people of the state and the country. Many of these deposits occur in wastelands and therefore the phobia of adverse effect of mining on environment is highly exaggerated.

19. Attended the 1st International Workshop on Technology Incubators in India (ITBI India - 2001) at Bangalore during the period 29th January to 02nd February 2001.
The event was jointly organized by Asia and Pacific Center for Transfer of Technology, a UN Body and Department of Science & Technology, Government of India.

T he following paper was presented at the Conference on Indian Industrial Minerals, 1998, organized by FIMI at Udaipur, September 24, 1998.

20.      Industrial Minerals & Environmental Impact–Facts & Fallacies, Proceedings Volume, pp 178-180. Reprinted in Mining Engineers' Jour., Vol. 2, No. 11, June 2001, pp 27-29 also Rapporteur of the Technical Session-V "Glass And Fertilizer Minerals -Exploration, Mining And Processing Issues".


P. S. Ranawat
University Department of Geology Udaipur


India has diverse and rich resources of industrial minerals and decorative stones. These resources have been utilized for a very long time. Lately, their utilization has increased considerably; consequently, there has been uninformed and panicky concern with respect to adverse effect on environment because of their utilization. Rational and unbiased thinking will reveal that the concern, if not unfolded, is highly exaggerated. There are several intrinsic peculiarities of mineral resources that deserve consideration. Major ones are: man can not do away with the use of minerals; mineral resources can not be relocated or created; they occupy and their activity affects a very small percent of surface area; they are located in remote rural areas; and most of them fall under small- scale enterprises.Many of the myths have gone because mineral resource utilization is viewed with a biased and restricted concept (if the jealousy factor is overlooked). These myths could be cleared if we take into consideration the risk-benefit assessment. Moreover, we have to realize mining and activities related to it occupy a fraction of 1% of surface area, an area less than that occupied by railways or roads. Mining and dependent industries give direct and indirect employment to a section of people that does not own agricultural land or the land and the climate are not suitable for agricultural sustenance. Mining activity is usually displayed on state and district level maps (small-scale maps, 1:50,000 or above). This gives a deceptively clustered representation that is frightening to a layman. Broadly speaking, it could be accepted that if a mining activity is not visible on a satellite imagery (say on a 1:250,000 scale) then it is unlikely that it will make a significant environmental impact.

That is not to say that micro-level environmental impact should be overlooked. Certainly not. They should be addressed and entrepreneurs should be made aware of how to handle the micro-level eco-imbalance that is likely to be generated. Small-scale units cannot afford environmental monitoring staff. Therefore, the Directorate of Mines & Geology or the Pollution Control Boards should help the units prepare and manage environmental plans. Bigger mining companies have not only grown trees in their properties but have handled effluent and wastage more responsibly. It is heartening to know that the recent satellite imageries have revealed that forests are increasing in several Indian states. The risk-benefit assessment has shown that the industry falls under the low-risk category. Studies on socio-economic impact of the industry have also shown positive observations.

21. Paper accepted for presentation at 31st International Geological Congress, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 2000 “Characterization of Indian and
South   American Emeralds and Geology of Rajasthan Emerald Belt, (Abstract Volume and IGC Website).

Ranawat, P. S.
Department of Geology, MLS University, Udaipur, India

The Western Indian State of Rajasthan has been the source of big, quality emeralds for centuries. Rich hauls of gems were recovered from placer and mother lodes in the schists associated with the belt of ultramafic rocks in the Precambrian formations. Modern mining started in 1943, and now the mining activity is at standstill. Jaipur, Rajasthan, is one of the most important trading and gem cutting centers of the World. Jewelers periodically approach us to identify stones; lately the need to distinguish between the Indian (re-cut) and South American gems has been felt. Two non-destructive techniques proved diagnostic. Studied South American samples showed halite bearing aqueous fluid inclusions and they display strong red fluorescence, where as the Rajasthan (Indian) emeralds contain carbonic fluid inclusions and do not show red fluorescence. With the help of these two non-ruinous techniques it is possible to identify the source of the gems. Similar characterization of emeralds from various locations of the World would be of great importance. Additionally, record of photomicrographs of fluid inclusions in a gem can serve as its identification mark (fingerprint) in event of its loss or theft. Emerald mineralization, in Rajasthan, occurs in biotite-/ talc-chlorite -/ actinolite ± horneblende schists that are associated with altered ultramafic rock intruding the Precambrian metasediments; close association of pegmatites is the second locus for its prospecting

Attended UNFC-2000 the Regional Seminar on the “Implementation of the UNFC for Reserves/ Resources: Solid Fuels & Minerals in Indian Ocean Rim Countries” at Agra during the period November 23-24, 2000. The event was jointly organized by UN, Department of Mines, Government of India, and Federation of Indian Mineral Industries, FIMI.
Attended the 1st International Workshop on Technology Incubators in India (ITBI India - 2001) at Bangalore during the period 29th January to 2nd February 2001. The event was jointly organized by Asia and Pacific Center for Transfer of Technology, a UN Body and Department of Science & Technology, Government of India.The following two papers were presented (by research scholars) at the International Seminar on Mineral Processing Technology–MPT 2002, Bangalore, January 2002. Proc. Vol. 1, pp 326-331 and 227-230 

22. Beneficiation of Low-Grade (9-11% P2o5) Weathered and Dolomitic Rock Phosphate of Jhamarkotra, Rajasthan, India. Proc. Vol. 1, pp 326-331


Ramasahnker 1, D. M. R Sekhar 2 Kuldeep Jain 3 Indresh Rathore 3 And P.S. Ranawat 3
1 Department of Chemistry, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India
Rajasthan State Mines and Minerals Ltd., Udaipur, India
3 Department of Geology, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India

Low-grade rock phosphate ore (9-10% P2O5), both primary and weathered varieties, were beneficiated using direct acid-circuit reverse flotation at pH 5.0. H3PO4 was used as a depressant of phosphate and sodium oleate containing a sulphonic acid was used to float carbonates. pH was adjusted by dilute H2SO4 to 5.0 prior to flotation. The phosphate concentrate (tails) of weathered ore analyzed 32% P2O5, 3.8% MgO and 62.4% recovery. Primary ore concentrate, after one scavenger cleaning yielded 34.4% P2O5, 2.5% MgO and 62.30% recovery.  

23.On Determination of Work Index in Wet Grinding Using Laboratory Ball Mill. Proc. Vol. 1, pp 227-320


Rama Shanker 1, D. M. R Sekhar 2 Kuldeep Jain 3 Indresh Rathore 3 and P.S. Ranawat 3
1 Department of Chemistry, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India
2 Rajasthan State Mines and Minerals Ltd., Udaipur, India
3 Departments of Geology, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India

A simple method for the determination of work index, Wi, in wet grinding using lab size ball mill has been suggested. The method involves grinding at different times giving material, which can subsequently be used for m.o.g., Wi determination and flotation studies at a time. The Bond's Third Theory of Comminution is applied to determine grindability test (to a first approximation only).

Paper presented at the National Seminar on “Growth of Entrepreneurship in India” organized by Entrepreneurship and Management Development Institute, Jaipur. February    19-20, 2002, Jaipur. Proceeding of the EMI Seminar pp 18-24.

24.Prospects and Growth of Entrepreneurship in Mineral Sector in Rajasthan. Accepted for presentation at the 90th Session of Indian Science Congress, Bangalore, Jan. 05, 2003.

25.Entrepreneurial Thrust for Students and Curricula of Geology


of the paper submitted to the 90th Session of Indian Science Congress, Bangalore, January 05, 2003

P. S. Ranawat

ED Cell, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur, Rajasthan

It is said that British education system in India was aimed at producing “Babus” to sustain the British Raj. True or not, but the geology education in India produced sturdy field geologists or “babu” geologists (technical coolies) for the British Raj to take care of mineral resource exploitation in India. The curriculum of Geology Departments failed to produce good entrepreneurs to utilize mineral resources. Private enterprises did thrive under British Raj but they were mostly non-geologists. This anomaly was agonizingly felt when non-technical citizens became millionaires by utilization of mineral resources through mining or mineral based industries. Geologists were happy to be employed by these entrepreneurs – i.e. the educational system produced “Job-Seekers” rather than “Job-Creators”. This lacuna was not set right even after India attained independence.   The students of batches of late 60s and early 70s in Rajasthan raised this issue and wanted curriculum modified to take care of “Job-Creator & Resource Utilizer” aspects; but it was ignored because it was too bold a concept then, especially because of socialistic priorities of that period. The matter was partly resolved through organization of invited lectures. An article on “How to Become Mine Owner” was published in our Silver Jubilee Souvenir (1975), which served as a guiding light for number of our students. A couple of them gave up confirmed jobs in state government departments and Hindustan Zinc Ltd. to set up their own enterprises.   Subsequently, in the year 1982 the Government of India tried to promote entrepreneurship through the schemes of National Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Development Board (NSTEDB), which was established in the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi. The education policy of 1986 emphasized the need for vocationalization of technical education at various levels “so as to focus attention on entrepreneurship and self employment in addition to their present mandate of churning out trained manpower”.  

It was felt that an attempt should be made to promote entrepreneurship for geology students.  Because it could not be done through change in curriculum, another mechanism was thought of. Consequently, an Entrepreneurship Development Cell (EDC) was established in the Department of Geology, Udaipur, Rajasthan, where in various training programs were arranged to create entrepreneurial culture in its students. It is suggested that a drastic change in curricula of Geology Departments is called for to produce “Job- Creators” rather than “Job-Seekers”.

Presented (by the research scholars) at the International Seminar on Mineral Processing Technology–MPT 2003, Goa, February 2003.

26.Further studies on flotation of low-grade rock phosphate ore o. R. Sekhar f Jhamarkotra with various chemical reagents. Kuldeep Jain, Indresh Rathore, D. M, Rama Shanker, P. S. Ranawat, Proceedings Volume pp. 97-101.


Kuldeep Jain1, Indresh Rathore1, Rama Shanker2, D. M. R. Sekhar3, P. S. Ranawat1.

Department of Geology, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur;
Retired Professor of Chemistry, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur;
3Rajasthan State Mines and Minerals Ltd., Udaipur;

psranawat@geolmlsu.orgBeneficiation of low-grade rock phosphate ore is being done at Jhamarkotra project Rajasthan since 1992; presently, 1500 tonnes per day (TPD) of ore is being upgraded to +34% P2O5. Studies are being carried out to improve both grade and recovery of P2O5 and to reduce the cost of beneficiation of this strategic commodity. This communication is to report our findings on bench-batch-scale beneficiation, both on reverse flotation and direct flotation, of Jhamarkotra dolomitic rock phosphate ores. Reagents used were 1-heptane sulphonic acid (synthesized in lab), N-lauroyl sarcosine and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid. The use of individual reagents gave E.R. value ranging from 1.2 to 1.5. A mixture of reagents sodium oleate & sulphonate gave better results. A mixture of poor grade ore with calcitic apatite also gave better results (i.e. E. R. >2).

Key Words - Phosphate, Dolomite, Flotation  
H      Paper accepted for presentation and published in the Proceeding Volume (Allied Publisher, New Delhi) of the International Conference on Quantitative Approaches in Mineral Processing (QAMP-2003) to be held on July 3-4, 2003, at Bhubaneswar.

27. Effect of Barium ions and pH on the flotation-beneficiation of phosphate from Jhamarkotra dolomitic rock phosphate ores
   Indresh Rathore, Kuldeep Jain, Rama Shanker, D. M. R. Sekhar, P. S. Ranawat



Indresh Rathore1, Kuldeep Jain1, Rama Shanker2, D. M. R. Sekhar3, P. S. Ranawat1.

Department of Geology, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur;
Department of Chemistry, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur;
Rajasthan State Mines and Minerals Ltd., Udaipur;


Surface modification of solid particles is a pre-requisite of flotation-beneficiation. This is achieved by adding suitable reagents, which are preferentially adsorbed on the surface; and formation of a least soluble compound on the solid surface is a condition of preferential adsorption. Following this reasoning, flotation-beneficiation of phosphate from Jhamarkotra dolomitic rock phosphate ores was attempted using added barium ions at pH 5.0 in reverse flotation and from 7.0 to 12.0 using direct flotation. Barium ions form the least soluble salt as compared to calcium and magnesium. The paper reports the results of our study.

28.International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 03, No. 04, August 2010, pp. 459-474#02030703 Copyright © 2010 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved

 Mineralogical and Chemical Characteristics of Talc and Tremolite Asbestos Hosting Proterozoic Ultramafic Rocks of Jharol Area, Udaipur, Rajasthan


1,Department of Geology, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313002, Rajasthan, India
2,State Department of Groundwater, Bhilwara-311001, Rajasthan, India
Email: shekhawatgeol@yahoo.com, ms.ranawat10@gmail.com, psranawat@yahoo.com

Abstract: A large number of completely serpentinised and extensively steatitised Ultramafic bodies that host workable deposits of talc and tremolite asbestos occur as elongated pods and lenticular bodies within the metasediments of the Jharol Group of the Aravalli Supergroup of Proterozoic age. These rocks are represented as massive serpentinite, talcose-serpentinite and talc-serpentine-magnesite rock. The talcose-serpentinite and talc-serpentine-magnesite rocks consist mainly of talc, magnesite, antigorite, tremolite, actinolite and chlorite, whereas massive serpentinite is composed mainly of antigorite ± chrysotile. Magnetite and apatite are present as major accessory minerals in these rocks. Field and petrochemical evidences indicate that the ultramafic rocks of the studied area were emplaced concordantly in sub-solid state in the Aravalli sediments through tectonically developed major fractures in the crust and subsequently subjected to deformation and metamorphism along with the sediments. The parent ultramafic rock was low temperature lherzolite (orogenic “root zone”) sub-type of peridotite. Serpentinisation of the peridotite might have occurred at certain depth prior to its emplacement in present set up by addition of sea water that moved down along the fractures in the crust. Steatitisation and simultaneously carbonatisation of the serpentinised ultramafic rocks took place later than serpentinisation in the area where the metamorphic fluids had C-O-H components that produced talc by metasomatic addition of CO2. The stable mineral phases (or metamorphic index minerals) suggest that steatitisation of ultramafic rocks took place at about 330 – 490 ºC temperature and intensity of steatitisation increased from north to south in the area.

Keywords: Ultramafic rocks, Talc deposit, Tremolite asbestos deposit, Jharol, Rajasthan.


29. Memoir Geological Society of India, No. 76, 2010, pp. 133-141

ISLGR – An Integrated “Green Technology” Device Pertinent for Conversion of Jhamarkotra Mill Tailings into Valuable Fertilizers.

N. K. Sharma1, K. Mohan Kumar2, P. S. Ranawat3,& M. S. Shekhawat4,.
1Mineral Advisor, CRDL-HZL, 2Works Manager, Tanzania Phosphate,
3Emeritus Professor, UGC, 4Associate Professor, Department of Geology, MLS University, Udaipur.

Abstract: The green chemistry project awarded by DST and RSMML is aimed to achieve near complete utilization of low-grade phosphate ore (LGO) of India by fusion with waste serpentine obtained from local décor stone industry. The research work was carried out during 2006-2009. A citrate soluble Fused Calcium Magnesium Phosphate (FCMP) fertilizer has been produced and the process parameters have been established – its patent has been filed through TIFAC/DST, New Delhi. In extension of this project a process has been developed to utilize about 1800 tpd effluent of Jhamarkotra rock phosphate beneficiation plant. An “Integrated Solid-Liquid and Gas Reactor” (ISLGR) System has been designed and developed to leach P, Mg, Ca elements with sulphuric acid and to absorb carbon dioxide in ammonia solution. Through this process, industrially useful products like Epsom MgSO4.7H2O, gypsum CaSO4.2H2O, magnesium ammonium phosphate, ammonium carbonate can be produced. Application for process patent of this process has also been submitted. The process will open gates for utilization of LGOs of India and abroad where beneficiation of LGOs is banned due to pollution controls and regulations. The ISLGR will be unique in producing value added products from the carbonate tails of Jhamarkotra Rock Phosphate beneficiation plant. Thus a near complete utilization of the ore is achieved mitigating the pollution problem. As most of the products are fertilizers in nature they will contribute in achieving much needed food security and second green revolution. The plant was fabricated by M/s Praveen Engineers, Udaipur.



The The following processes patents have been filed through TIFAC to the Controller of Patents, Delhi, jointly in the names of Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur and M/s Rajasthan State Mines & Minerals Ltd., Udaipur. Inventors: Prof. Dr. P. S. Ranawat, Dr. N. K. Sharma, Er. K. Mohan Kumar & Prof. Dr. Rama Shanker.

  1. An eco-friendly process for making Epsom and Gypsum. Application No. 1351/DEL/2007, date of filing June22, 2007.
  2. A process for making slow-release phosphate fertilizer, Application No. 1352/DEL/2007, date of filing June22, 2007.



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